Environmentally friendly human habitation , at the start of the XXI century , has become urgent, as never before. With the development of new technologies, new types of transport capacity of the production rate of humanity has gone from the initial conditions in which civilization arose once .
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Today, a person living in a fairly large city, more and more exposed stress loads and adverse effects of an artificially created them habitat. The problem of environmental protection ecological materials problem habitat rather new, as yet just 100-150 years ago, a man ate organic food, breathing clean air, living in an environmentally clean homes. Today we are exposed to noise stress, breathe in the air with the exhaust gases, are faced with industrial and household radiation, eat food grown on nitrate, are exposed to radio and high-frequency magnetic fields. All these factors are all around us everywhere. Suffice it to say that the World Health Organization argues that the air in a city apartment is dirty, on average five times stronger than the outside. It is therefore understandable desire of man to shoot with a load of stress and rest from time to time the benefits of civilization. Many solve this problem forays into nature, some for the sake of proximity to It even exchanged a city apartment to country house. However, not everything can be solved in such a radical change. But the requirements for sanitary As housing has increased not only due to the increasing pollution of the environment, but also due to the significant expansion of the range of construction the materials used in both public and private construction organizations. The bottom line is that we were told at the Research Institute of Hygiene, houses built during the Soviet period, and this time from the 20s to the 80s of last century, were built strictly from materials provided by State standards and building codes. Y construction companies in this period, firstly, there was no choice, and secondly, had no right to use any materials or, except as outlined in the specification on a typical building project. Moreover, in pre-Soviet period, any malicious building materials did not really exist. Until the early twentieth century houses were built entirely of brick or stone, and as such materials like cement, sand, chalk, lime. Of chemicals have been really that the dyes and paints, and then cooked in the main based on linseed oil. Ludmila Pelikh, engineer of the first category of Hygiene Research them. Marzeev says: In Soviet times, the houses were built on standard designs. In the construction company no choice of materials. Now, as a rule, accommodation tenants shall be without decoration and choice of finishing materials, a problem owner. Standards for air exchange have remained the same, and the saturation of housing polymeric materials has increased markedly. Sanitation center should take surrendering to the operation of the object in any case - whether a house or production room. But the Institute of Hygiene has no supervisory function. We test object, if there is a request from a tenant or contract with a construction company or direction of Ministry of Health. But our conclusion may be grounds for SES to prohibit the use of the object to eliminate violations. Although Such cases are rare. New building materials present, the number construction and decoration materials increased significantly. The number of building Companies in the hundreds, the number of companies supplying materials - By the thousands. At the same time vendors are primarily interested in profit, and Builders - savings. Therefore, the entire range of building materials, used in modern construction, can be divided into: - a relatively safety - those that require strict control. Among the relatively safe materials include most traditional manufactured on the basis of natural brick, stone, concrete, finishing materials on the basis of Plaster, wood, glass. More dangerous from the point of building materials of ecology are materials with high amounts of polymers consisting of: various types of plastics, linoleum, roofing materials, and champions hazard, paints and materials based on phenol and formaldehyde. The latter can have very adverse effects on human health. Linoleum or laminate, even when heated by sunlight produce a whole range of organic and toxic substances. Poor-quality paints and varnishes, and does can eventually cause allergies or asthma. Statistics construction market materials rather alarming. More than 50% of all construction materials domestic market can not be considered safe for health. Many people do not under power to pass even the simplest environmental review. In modern architecture, much of polymers in modern architecture, much of polymers on some of the negative factors associated with the ecology of building materials, it makes sense to talk in more detail. As for the noise, then the maximum allowable norm - 70 dB during the day and 60dB at night. But on the street with heavy traffic is - 90dB. Noise - is not harmless. He is the reason most of the nerve disorders, headache and functional disorders in the body. Unfavorable effects on humans is artificial electromagnetic fields. Their sources are running household appliances, electrical wiring, external electromagnetic radiation. In the West, this issue is relevant because excessive number of appliances, we have - because of its low quality. So some older TV's are X-ray source radiation to 40mKi / h, which is above the permissible level. Color TV up to 50cm create an electric field of 20-30kV / m (normal - 15 kV / m). Therefore, we must watch them at a distance of 1, 5-2m from the screen. Among the household enough devices such a variable magnetic field which is greater than international norms - 0, 2 microtesla. Prolonged exposure to it increases the risk of childhood leukemia in adults - leukemia, brain cancer, adverse changes in reproductive and immune system. Avoid actions on the body of electromagnetic fields can only be a distant place permanent stay a safe distance. The maximum permissible level of radiation Ukraine is for 10-20 mR / h. In nature, this rate rarely exceeds specified amount. But if you add on here the radiation from the construction and fit- materials and constructions (concrete, granite, brick, plaster, fillers, ceramics, expanded clay, tile, etc.) that contain natural radionuclides, this figure could jump a few times. It is well known that radiation is characterized by a long incubation period. Consequently, permanent and long-term stay in the zone of action, no matter how meager nor was the ionizing dose can lead to cancer, radiation sickness, disturbances in genetic structures. The most unfavorable components environmental pollution in residential areas can be called formaldehyde and phenol. These highly toxic, volatile gases cause headaches, allergies, irritation of mucous membranes. Infobud writes, phenol and formaldehyde are present in almost all polymer materials, chipboard, used in the manufacture of furniture, decorative details, some fabrics, carpets and adhesives. The release of these components is over the long term - from one month to several years. Depends it is the nature of the material, temperature, humidity, ventilation. Activity ejection of volatile toxins or declining over time, or, conversely, increases. New products from ADI may initially exude a scent that, soon disappear. The older are painted walls, the more likely hit phenol and formaldehyde in the air, as happens fairly quickly cracking of the protective layer. Far from unsafe material is asbestos which, fortunately, less and less used in construction. Nevertheless, its source may be damaged or used improperly finishing, insulation, fire protection materials. Asbestos Poisoning does not give immediate symptoms. However, long-term stay in a contaminated Asbestos apartment leads to a variety of cancer and pulmonary diseases. Concrete, in comparison with other building materials is quite clean and environmentally friendly building material, but unless when it adds an additive in the form of formate or sodium nitrite, affecting the rate of hardening of the mixture. Sodium nitrite is a salt of nitrous acid salts which are poisonous. Hit them in the human body, for example, during construction, causing severe destruction (expansion blood vessel formation in the blood metagemoglobina), life-threatening. To make the concrete more plastic is often used plasticizer C-3, which contains 6-10% sodium sulfate NaSO4. These compounds have considerable environmental hazard, but not interact with human habitation directly. As for radon - a colorless, radioactive gas but frequent satellite natural minerals, then it may pose a health hazard and life. At room temperature, radon is one of the most difficult gases. But its effects are more likely to undergo residents manor houses, than the residents of apartment buildings. Receipt of radon from the soil is much higher than of structures. In addition, one must understand that applied in the construction material impact on the ecology of housing is not individually, but in the aggregate. Head of the Department of Building Physics NIISK, Ph.D. Gennady says Farenyuk ecological building materials: Sustainability can be evaluated on various parameters: the injury to people on the harm for the Environment, harm to the personnel involved in the production of of a material. If we analyze the full range of building materials in terms of their environmental performance as part of the building was built, it is almost All construction materials are relatively clean, because produced mainly from natural materials. Much more harm to humans may be something that is household items and home environment. For example, furniture, particle board and laminate, as their composition includes chemicals, synthetic resin, etc. With regard to construction materials, most of them do not have human contact, and various chemical components are not allocated unless the material is not subject to action of high temperatures. Yes, and it is characterized not so much building, as finishing materials based on synthetic or organic. In this regard, natural stone, linoleum say it's hard to compare. During the Soviet era linoleum, for example, banned in child care centers. Methods of combating It is clear that with such a variety of factors that negatively affect the ecology of human housing, builders should be aware of preventive measures and countermeasures, and control authorities have a perfect and an established mechanism of checks designed to prevent apparent violations. One way of solving environmental problems of building materials is the use of new materials of high quality. Some progress in this issue is reached, especially with regard to soundproofing the premises. Head. laboratory building and architectural acoustics NIISK Nikolai Trofimenko: The noise level in areas where people live, one of the most important environmental components which determine the degree of comfort. Our laboratory on a regular basis necessary to carry out testing of building materials for sound insulation of properties. We analyze the construction of residential and office buildings still under project. Unfortunately, the standards that guide us, obsolete, them over 30 years. They have remained ever since the Soviet Union and not all consistent with the current requirements of the European level. Now Our institute is developing a new national paper, which will more stringent requirements will be two categories: standard and enhanced. Standard category will not be too much different from the existing, Although there will be corrections. In the advanced category (for luxury homes and hotels), of course, the demands will be much tougher. And be achieved it will not be at the expense of increasing the thickness and weight of partition walls, but at the expense of more quality materials such as drywall, inside which there is a layer sound-absorbing material. It is assumed eventually to abandon the construction of fillings in the overlap of sand and expanded clay, because they are not only ineffective to isolate the impact of the structural and noise, but also increase the weight of the structure building. Many experts are of the opinion that the review for compliance health and safety standards in general has meaning only materials that are with the person in direct contact. Since the constructive building directly not in contact with the environment of man, and if they come into contact, then only during the construction and repair work. In all other cases, it is isolated from residential premises is the inner shell of the finishing materials. That they have become a major subject of analysis specialists. Infobud writes that the conditions of certification for compliance with sanitary and DBNam norm rather rigid, and the material or product that has no certificate compliance, not only can not be applied construction company, but can not be overlooked by customs territory of Ukraine. Certification finishing materials are recognized experts in Kiev NIISMIZ. This is powerful and equipped, but not the only organization in Ukraine. Test material here lasts from several weeks to several months, Chief Laboratory of Polymer and roofing materials NIISMIZ Nina Pyatigorskaya: All materials are produced in our industry and foreign, must a hygienic sanitary and epidemiological expertise. And such a conclusion really is. Otherwise, the territory their country will not let customs. We also carry out certification of these materials. And by the way, cases where a particular material does not pass certification, sometimes. We have no right to voice brands, but on the whole issue there are more than just a roofing materials. But the problem is that We are not the only organization dedicated to certifying Ukraine. Certification and do TsSMy (centers of standardization and Metrology), which in many areas. Therefore, there is a trend that manufacturers or importers of materials that are not certified, we are trying to obtain certification in the regional FMCs, where there are no specialists of this level in NIISMIZ. And often it turns out. I must say that both products west side, so recent and Ukrainian origin, usually complaints does not matter. For example, Dneprodzerzhinsk and Slavutskii plants produce roofing felt no worse than Western ones. We have three mineral plant, manufacturing products high quality (in particular the "Techno" in Cherkassy,
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