The first thing we remember the word " comfort " - it is warm , which should
be in the house, and not just metaphorically, but in the truest sense of the word.
Since the " oat -day roads," the homeowner should think about not only
about different ways to heat your home, but the maximum preservation of the resulting
heat.

Reduce heat to zero is hardly possible, but to make significant
reducing heating streets - one of the top priorities when designing
and building a house. If we consider the relative distribution of heat,
the picture looks something like this: - the foundation - up to 15%;
- Exterior walls and windows, doors - up to 25% - ventilation - up 50% (SNP);
- Top - up to 10%. Heat loss from ventilation - the only ones that quantitatively
decrease can not sew. The remaining values ​​can be reduced by choosing
ground and heat-insulating material, and effective structures.
Conventionally, there are three "foreign" insulation - exterior surfaces
concrete slabs (interior) ceiling and openings - doors and windows. External
barriers outer surfaces, such as foundations, walls and roof are
the largest area of ​​contact with the outside world. Accordingly,
on them and bear the main responsibility for keeping such a valuable
heat. In connection with the various functional features of parts of the house, the approach
for thermal insulation will also be different. As a security foundation, as well as
Waterproofing often use a horizontal layer of insulation on the perimeter
home, under the blind area, which prevents freezing of the soil. The exact calculation of the width
and thickness of the insulation is made of the characteristics of a particular site and
mainly depends on the type of soil, depth of frost penetration and its constructive
features of the building. The walls are insulated on the outside slabs of extruded
Styrofoam used as permanent formwork for casting
foundation. This design protects basement walls from deformation due to
frost heaving soils, as well as reduces the likelihood of condensation
in the summer, minimizing otsyrevanie. The walls of homes in the considered
problems are a big source of heat loss, so a lot of attention
paid to the choice of both primary and insulating materials. For
compare the visibility of the corner wall heat rooms of 15 m2. At
ceiling height of 3 m, the length of the exterior walls of 8 m and the square windows of 2, 3 m
total area of ​​heat transfer surface is 21, 7 m2. As can be seen
from the table, for better heat preservation brick walls require additional
layer of insulation. But the porous ceramics and wooden structures
could well do without him - winning in heat loss is not very large,
and the rate of heat conduction materials themselves are good enough. At
using porous materials such as concrete, foam concrete, porous
ceramics, one must consider that they have a hygroscopicity and
while their thermal conductivity increases slightly, but
thermal resistance of the structure, respectively, decreases. But
this is a minor differences that do not require a large margin. There
The following methods of insulating material on the outer
walls. As a rule, mineral wool - they account for about
80% of the market. The remaining 20% ​​is divided among glass materials, including expanded
mineral materials, organic and Timy poroplasty. Stucco facade,
or "wet plaster." The method combines the insulation and outer
finish. This system is warming to the following:
- Load bearing wall - insulation panels, which initially attached,
and after dyubeliruetsya - base layer of plaster, reinforced with alkali-resistant
fiberglass - a layer of plaster. In this case the plates have
only compressive loads, so they are presented is not very hard
requirements for strength. You can use as a mineral, and polystyrene
plate. Some manufacturers now produce TIMov fully ready
set for plastering of the facades - until the plaster.
The main disadvantage of this method is that the work can not be held
at low temperatures. Suspended, or ventilated facades. Design
ventilated facade consists of the following components: - bearing wall;
- Heat-insulating layer, fixed anchors - air space,
about 50 mm; - guides fixed to the wall using special brackets;
- Protective and decorative layer, mounted in the guides. Exterior Trim
layer can be anything - from the lining and vinyl siding to granite.
Layered masonry. As the name implies, the design includes several
layers. In this case, the load bearing wall, usually made of brick or aerated
blocks, followed by a layer of insulation, followed by a third, outer layer, which
made of face brick and has a protective-decorative function. Between
outer and inner layers of flexible connections installed fixtures, or
alkali-resistant fiberglass. Recently we have started to win
popularity frame construction. Thanks to modern materials, this
method of construction is experiencing a rebirth. Components of construction:
- Inner lining of the drywall sheets - vapor barrier layer;
- A heater - wind-proof membrane - the outer covering of the boards, decorative
finish. One version of insulating partition walls (can also be used
for the houses) - wind-slab fiberboard. Carry over the outer
clapboard siding or trim that is installed on the rails.
In this case between the wall and the facade there is a gap, ie, the ventilated
facade. This design is easily repaired and durable. Lifetime
wood-fiber plates of shelter for 50 years. This insulation is made of wood
in the form of plates as a jacket closes all the cracks and crevices, thus breaking the "bridges
cold "(the joints between the bars, frame elements and window and door
openings). Plates are made from finely milled softwood pulp
rocks, which is held together by pressing and drying. Binder
resin are contained in most coniferous wood, without adding chemicals.
In rare cases, it is not possible to insulate the house from the outside, is used
method of insulation on the inside. To use the soft insulation
you must install the supporting frame in increments of 600 mm rack. This will allow
no problem to install a heater in the basalt slab spacers, and over
- MDF boards, which are attached directly to the frame and can be
decorated with wallpaper. Then on top of a heater and a frame must be installed
vapor barrier layer. This can be a special membrane, as well as usual,
but thick film (min 200 mm). The main thing - to create a sealed layer. Then
necessary to fill an additional frame to create an air gap between
vapor barrier and interior trim. This is to avoid wetting the material
Finishing in the case of condensation. To do this, only a small
(1-2 cm) air gap. The final step - directly furnish the room.
Run it by using the wall panels - on the basis of soft fiberboard panels
trudnovozgoraemogo or polystyrene and ceramic tiles (clinker).
The main roof is "filling" of the roof structure, which ensures the correct
functioning at home, heat and vapor barrier, is under the roofing material.
In contrast to the walls and foundation, the roof requires a greater variety of sectors.
And if, for example, the walls can sometimes do without additional insulation,
a roof system - a complex multi-layer design that performs
waterproofing, vapor sealing and insulating properties. First
waterproofing layer is fixed under kontrobreshetkoy, followed by three more
layer - diffusion paropropuskayuschaya film, plate heat insulator and is already
under it - the vapor barrier layer, which prevents the wet insulation
material. To use a pitched roof insulation materials of low
density (30-40 kg/m3), whereas for flat roofs is chosen much
denser material (160-170 kg/m3). The thickness of the insulation layer is selected
based on the functional purpose podkryshnogo space - classic
choice - an attic or loft. In the attic insulation thickness is always greater.
As an alternative to the popular mineral wool can talk about fiberglass,
highly resistant to chemical attack, and recognized antiseptichnom
the best sound insulator. Openings most delicate place in the construction of the house - windows
and doorways. And with these heat losses is difficult to fight.
Understandable desire to let the man in the northern house plenty of light due to large
glass surfaces runs into the problem of insulation in nesolnechnoe
time of year. You have to find a compromise. The development of modern oknostroeniya
is on the way to improve sound and heat insulation characteristics.
The current window is very different from its parent in a wooden frame,
with glass, wooden bead set forth, and an annual tradition for
pre-winter sealing. Modern glass - high-tech design,
equipped with multiple functions and does not require any additional gestures
to improve insulation. Balcony doors are usually made in a similar
technology and have the same characteristics. As for the input
doors, in addition to ensuring proper installation, it makes sense to do
"Waiting room", or hall, which will play the role of a gateway
for cold air from the street. Interior partitions and floor decks
also in need of insulation, especially if the house has a cold
basement, attic uninhabited, the attached garage or unheated porch. Choice
type TIM and its thickness is calculated on the basis of the design features
home. The boundary between the heated and unheated rooms need not
only heat but also a vapor barrier. Type of insulating material is dependent
the type of floor - slab or beam, used in the first case
severe forms of insulation, the second - more soft. Vapor barrier material
have from the heated space, reflecting the party (in the case of
foil material) to the heated room. It should be noted
that properly insulated basement done, for example, allows you to maintain
in it a constant temperature of 10C in a 5-year round.

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