Understandably , most hot water in urban areas cut off in the summer , and in
it's uncomfortable for us , we actively begin to seek out : the heat
water. Besides, if you live in a country cottage , where there is no central
water supply in general , this problem arises in full growth , not only for one
summer month . What should I do ? Have to find other ways to heat water.

The cheapest fuel and, therefore, a way to get hot water -
gas and gas column. But this option is suitable only if
gas pipeline runs close to home. You can certainly heat up
water, setting the boiler that runs on liquid fuel (diesel fuel). But recall
that the placement of this unit to a separate room. There is one
a good way to warm water - to buy an electric water heater. Electricity
however, more expensive than gas, but - thanks to Soviet power for electrification
across the country - today there is electricity in every home. Here let us stop and
on electric water heaters as the most convenient way to heat water
in an apartment or holiday home. Electric water heaters can be divided
into two groups: flow and storage (capacitive). Externally, they
seems to be similar - "cabinets" of a square or cylindrical in shape, on the front
panels are installed temperature adjustment knob. True, the cumulative
Water Heaters - larger than the flow (flow-through heaters
about the size of a shoe box). But the main difference between them
- A way to heat water. Heater inside a water heater
installed heating element - PETN. Tan - heating system with
heating elements for flow and storage water heaters.
Tan is made of copper pipe, which is pressed heating coil
nichrome. TENovye heating elements are not afraid to air pockets and
are reliable and long service life. Ten heated electric
(To do this, of course, turn the unit on the network). Cold water is
through a tube in which the heating element and out of the device
already hot. Do not flow water heater tank, it should heat up
to the desired temperature the entire volume of water that passes through it. Here
there is one "but": in order to quickly heat the large quantity of water (shower,
bath), you need a high-power device (3 to 27 kW). For example, to
do not limit yourself in the shower, turn the device power
not less than 8 kW. There are small instantaneous water heaters with input
power of 8.3 kW, but not all wiring them survive. It is best to install them
in homes where there are electric stoves - there wiring is designed for this
power (and there should always consult an electrician.)
But in the old "Stalinist" or "Khrushchev" homes when connecting flow
water heater must have a problem. Houses were calculated after
the "light bulb Ilyich" and at best on TV "KVN". What should I do? Exit
ie: a large amount of hot water at a lower load on the grid will provide
storage (capacitive) water heaters. Savings (capacitive) Water Heater
First the prices. Prices for instantaneous water heaters ranging
from 170 to 645 $. The smallest (5 liters) water heater is
about $ 120 and $ 645 for the heater can be purchased with a capacity of 150 liters. That
As models of reservoir water heaters from different manufacturers, then
they also differ in price. For example, I was wondering why the German
stolitrovy unit of "Shtibel ELTRONВ» (Stiebel Eltron) В«VaillantВ» (Vaillant)
worth more than $ 500, and Italian instrument with a similar capacity on "Ayse"
(Isea) - $ 175? It turns out that a fundamental difference between German and Italian
cumulative electric heaters do not, they all have the same structure.
Probably the price depends on quality. The Germans make some great devices
size than the Italians and Turks - in German a lot of space heaters
insulation is due to its water loses only 5 В° C per day. Present
saving electricity. In addition, the price difference also depends on the quality of
enamel steel, which is made from a tank, etc. But back to the device
cylinder. In the tank filled with cold water, as well
as in flow-through water heater, installed a heating element - PETN.
It heats the water to the desired temperature (35-85 В° C) on and off. As
water in the storage ring is cooled to 0 and 5 В° C, tan and automatically switches back
heats the water to the desired temperature. To reduce heat loss between
capacity (tank) of hot water heater and the external shell is laid
insulation of solid foam. Another plus. No need to worry
for electrical wiring - the average power of about 2 kW heater
(Although the range - 0, 9 to 6 kW). The main thing - to choose the correct amount
tank and the heater power (for example, heaters with a tank of 50 l are
capacity and 1, 2 kW and 2 kW). And slowly, an hour or two to heat the water up to a certain
(35-85 В° C) temperatures - the kettle over low heat. With such a gentle
mode takes less energy. Moreover, increasing the temperature
water in the tank, we are increasing the amount we require hot water. As it
going on? I told him in detail. For example, to take a shower and need water
about 38 В° C. If you set this temperature on the control panel
cylinder capacity of 50 liters, it consumed almost all the hot water.
And if you increase the temperature in the tank to 60 В° C and more open and cold faucet
so that the water was mixed, we emptied the tank only half full. Before
buy a water heater, you need to decide how many taps in the apartment
(Or house), it would "serve". If a crane (or as they say, to
one sink), water heater suitable open (non-pressurized)
type. If you have at home a few taps, you need to take the unit closed
(Pressure) type. What's the difference? In open water heater (non-pressurized)
type of valve, water shut-off is worth between line and tank. It protects
tank on the pressure in the water (water in the pipes, as you know, flows under pressure).
Thus, the tank is only atmospheric pressure and no pressure.
This does not mean that the water from the tank will not leak. When we open
faucet, hot water from the top of the tank drained (see diagram)
through the tap in the sink (bathroom) due to the fact that the cold water below begins
flow into the tank. For open water heaters require special
mixing valves, which means that they are not designed for the apartments with a central
hot water for a time off the hot water. It is necessary that the heater
a little more expensive than the same volume and power closed heater. As
I explained to specialists more often used the same pressure all water heaters.
There is another system - the overlapping gate stands between the faucet
and tank. They are no problems connected to the water system and may
work on a few washes. How to determine the correct amount of the tank? Before you
table the average flow of hot water. To calculate the flow rate, multiply
by the number of people living in the house or apartment, and counting, we make
choice. Approximate location of water intake flow rate (l) Normal Temperature Flow
water at t = 60 В° C (l) Kitchen sink 10 to 20 to 50 В° C from 8 to 16, from Bath
150 to 180 40 В° C from 90 to 108 Souls From 30 to 50 37 В° C from 16 to 27 From Sink
10 to 15 37 В° C, 5 to 8 wash hands for 2 to 5 37 В° C, 1 to 3 * Example:
Let's say we need a water temperature of 60 В° C (economy mode, see above). Take
family of three. If you take a shower every morning, then it will be washed
dishes after breakfast, how much water it takes? Take the average consumption
water in the shower - 20 liters. Multiply by the number of persons: 20 x
3 = 60 liters. Next, take the average water consumption per wash - 12 liters, we add:
60 + 12 = 72 liters of water at 60 В° C. This volume of the tank suit us.
Capacity for water heaters are usually a volume of 5, 10, 30, 50, 80, 100,
120, 150, 200, 300, 400. In our case we need a tank of 80 liters. But
By the way, you can put the two heater. For example, one - in the bathroom
another - in the kitchen. Expert opinion Electric water heaters with a capacity
5, 10, 15 liters are suitable for hand washing, a 30-liter - to take a shower
country houses, etc. They are easy to install, economical and easy to fit under
or over the sink. Calculated on an average family of three. Electrical
water heaters with a capacity of 50, 80, 100, 120, 150 liters are suitable for large
family. The purpose and characteristics - about the same as that of the previous
models. Electric water heaters with a capacity of 200, 300, 400 and 1000
liters are suitable for autonomous hot water supply of the house. Let us
results. To wash dishes in the kitchen may well go drive capacity
5-15 liters, it can be installed over the sink, and under it. For decision
shower water heater requires a little more. Family of three quite satisfied
storage capacity of 30-50 liters. They can hang in the kitchen in a closet or
put over the sink in the bathroom. The only downside: hot
water in it a little shower would have to take a maximum of ten minutes. Moreover,
with intervals of 1-1, 5:00, waiting for the next portion of hot water.
Therefore, to wash and take a shower, we recommend you buy a water heater more
volume - 80-150 liters. These heaters will even take a hot
bath. But the water heaters from 200-400 up to 1,000 liters used for
integrated supply hot the whole house. They are suitable in the case,
if a country house set in the spa. We should not
on one type of storage water heaters - the boiler. It is also
cabinet, but with the crane (like a teapot) and with controls on the front.
There are adjustment knobs for hot and cold water, like a conventional mixer.
Such devices are usually placed in kitchens, offices, cafes, canteens,
where ever need very hot water. Moreover, water can be poured and not
of water, but simply a banal bucket, removing the cover from the boiler (this is
for example, is quite convenient for the villas, where there is no central water supply).
Buck's smallest boiler - 5 liters. What made water heaters?
It is clear that the water heater was a long and reliable, it must be done
of materials with good anti-corrosion properties. Internal capacity
a small volume reservoir heaters are made of polypropylene or
of copper. But most of the tanks made of steel (in large heaters in
among them), and the inner surface of the protective enamel coating is applied. Enameled
steel - a very durable material, resistant to high temperatures, exposure to
chemicals and non-toxic. To extend the life of the tank in it
establish so-called anti-corrosion anode of the "sacrificial" metal.
Serves as a anti-corrosion anode to 7 years. For example, the heaters' Shtibel
ELTRON "is an indicator - lamp lights up when the entire anode
destroyed. And, therefore, need to buy a new plate and set it in place
old. There is another problem. Alas, on the inner walls of storage
water heaters with time limescale deposited, especially if
in your city or region hard water. How to deal with scum, Andrei Kozyrev,
Specialist firms' Dzhiel-Altair "(selling plumbing,
tiles, mosaic): - To protect storage water heaters from scale,
before you run water into the tank, it is desirable to purify the water (there are special
filtering installations, reducing the hardness of water). If you can not filter out
water heaters can just clean the site. It is fairly easy to dismantle.
But before this procedure should be empty tank. For tap water are more suitable
instantaneous water heaters. They, of course, also subject to deposition of lime
but to a lesser extent than the storage devices. How and where to properly install
water heater? The first thing to note -
degree of electrical safety devices IP (IP - International Class
protection is expressed by two digits) The first figure - protection from contact or
foreign body: 1 - hand, large foreign bodies, 2 - finger, foreign
body of medium size, 4 - wire, foreign bodies\u003e 1 mm, 5 - complete
protection, including and dust. Second digit - Protection from water: 0 - no
special protection, 1 - water droplets falling from the top 3 - protection from the rain
spray angle 60 В°; 4 - protected against splash, spray all areas, 5 -
protection against water jets, jets from all directions. Most often, water heaters
have protection IP24 or IP25. This means that the water heater with a designation
IP24 protected from contact with water spray. This heater can be installed
For example, in the bathroom, but preferably away from sinks and shower. A
water heater with IP25 not even afraid of water jets, so it can be
attach anywhere. But in order not to risk it, as a rule, the unit clean
into a decorative cabinet and control panel installed separately. There is
models, which are regulated by the control panel. By way of attaching storage
water heaters are wall mounted, recessed (to install, say, a
kitchen sink) and floor (large volume of 150 liters). Before
Buy your favorite model wall heater, you need to clearly define
place to install it. Simply put: over a sink or under the sink. Here
have to be careful: water heater with upper and lower connection
Their outward appearance is no different. The only difference is the location of PETN. But
Keep in mind that the unit with the upper connection in any case can not be installed
under the sink. The process of heating the water will become unmanageable. How to install
water heater? Included with the water heater, except a passport describing
operating and installation, make sure the scheme is applied in a 1:1 scale.
There are any holes that need to be drilled. And for the Wall
devices increased need for special brackets, so we advise
installation of such devices to entrust to specialists. I remember the case: one of my
familiar heater hung local plumber, who thought that
large nails will be enough, he says, "no-dryuchki these things,
kranshteny not need them! "As a result, the unit failed on the second day after installation.
However, to honor the Italian manufacturers, which fell the unit is not broken
and, thank God, works quite well to this day. By the way, the timing
date. The warranty period for electric water heaters - 12 months.
Life - 10-15 years. To find out, is it really so they last
long, I turned to the Society of Consumer Protection. Judge Svetlana Kulnitsky
responded that the claims against him have not yet been seen. In addition, I
interviewed experts from the service centers who install
and maintenance of heaters. And it turned out amazing thing. It turns out that
most water heaters are broken because users (that is, we
with you) include them without water! Because of this, at best, burnout, PETN,
at worst - melted and damaged "innards" tank. To avoid this,
Remember the most important rule to connect the water heater: After installing
and connection to the water to fill it with water. And only then
include. If you do everything according to instructions, rest assured, other emergency
cases, water heater securely protected. For example, if line pressure
exceed the maximum allowable value, the special safety valve
open and throw the water down the drain. Check valve, on the contrary, in the case
pressure drop (for example, because of the break water) will not allow water to drain
from the tank. So, what to know when choosing a water heater. 1. Before you buy
water heater are very clear that you need: * boiler
for the kitchen, so was always on hand an adequate supply of hot water * tank
Hot water on-off time of centralized water supply source *
hot water for washing, showering, washing dishes at the cottage or apartment;
* Full supply of hot water at home, farm or business. Based on the
so need to make a purchase. 2. Calculate how much water will be spending.
For an apartment or house to make it easy (see table). The calculation of a large
project will make a company where you buy your water heater. 3. Necessary
choose the amount of water heater. To water heater lasts longer, better
use a larger capacity unit. For example, it is better to buy a water heater
capacity of 80 liters and install it on the temperature of 60 В° C (with a more sparing
mode, the heater is formed smaller scale and less energy is wasted
to maintain the temperature of water). 4. In addition, you should choose the type of water heater:
open or closed. Do not forget that the device is an open working
only one tap and it requires special fittings. 5. Do not forget
that the water heater can be installed: * in a separate boiler room, * on
the wall (and remember that there are water heaters with an upper or lower fixing);
* Built-in wardrobe. Based on this, look for floor, wall or built-in
the heater. 6. Decide who will install it: * you are guided by
instruction; * company or service center. But we suggest: it is better to trust

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