Wiring in the form of execution is divided into open and hidden .
In the accommodation is made as a rule , concealed wiring . wire marks
APPVS , ANN , APPV, APV, Academy of Law , and others are laid inside the walls, under floors,
channels in building structures under a layer of plaster.

In buildings of unified design elements line channels
in the panels and floors is determined by their design, based on the shortest
paths for the wires. Channels in the panels overlap with slots for switches,
outlet or terminate these nests. At the output channels of the panels and
ceilings are formed nodes pair of wires, which ends after welding
Isolation and sealed with cement mortar, gypsum or get turned into the corresponding
box. When combined with concealed wiring in public housing
cables are laid in electrical baseboards. Plinth - a long and
narrow pencil case with a number of longitudinal walls made of combustible difficult
plastic. The cover of the same material on the panel snapped his spring-loaded
sidewalls. Skirting boards are fixed on the walls near the floor, ceiling and perimeter
doorways. These are paving the baseboards and telephone lines, television
cables, network radio. Qualified electrician available for your home
repair of any kind of wiring. However, new electrical wiring can
to lay open only under the following form or plaster. Repairs to
wiring hidden in the panels and floors, it is advisable to limit only
change of sockets, switches, light fittings, strengthening the weakened
contact them and in the extreme case of the Earth the damaged section of wires
between junction boxes and boxes of mortgage-sockets, switches.
To do this, remove the damaged wire and at the same time as it is pulled by
through the channel of the new wire. If this fails, then the wire bites
at the exit of the box, and punched in a new fit for him in the groove
wall. Then be filled with cement groove or alabaster solution.
Before installing the wiring must be installed to determine the mass of the group
shields, lamps, rosettes, fixed appliances, to partition
wires, their places of rotations, passes through the wall. For open wiring
identify the site of attachment of wires. In residential installation height of sockets
selected based on the destination premises, interior design, amenities
connecting appliances. Usually razotki placed at a height of 50 to
80 cm from the floor. Switches ceiling fixtures installed at a height
1, 5 m. The switches at the front door to the room placed so that the open
door does not obscure them. In the premises for a permanent stay of children
sockets and switches are placed to a height of 1, 8 m above the floor. Inside toilet
and bathrooms switches and sockets to install is prohibited. Exception
are outlets for appliances and hair dryers, fed through the separation
double-insulated transformer. The latter is mounted in a special unit
outside these premises. It is also forbidden to establish closer outlet
than 50 cm from zazemnnyh metal devices. Sockets on the wall that separates the
two rooms of one apartment, it is convenient to put on each side of the wall, including
parallel to them through the hole in the wall. In the premises connections and branches
cables for all types of electrical wiring run in the connective junction and
boxes. The connections of wires should have no mechanical impact,
their isolation must be equivalent to the electric strength of the main
wire insulation. Conductors and ground wires connected to protective earth
each other by welding. The addition of these wires to electrical appliances,
subject to ground is performed by bolts. Metal
case of electric stoves vanish, which is laid on the housing panel
separate section of the conductor, equal to the cross section of phase wire. This guide
joins zero protective conductor to supply counter.
In semiconductors, providing protective ground or vanishing, should not
be the fuses and circuit breakers. Otherwise, at operation
protection of all devices included in this group the line would be a dangerous
potential network. Ceiling lights are hung on a special metal
hooks, reinforced holes in the ceiling, and insulated from these hooks
plastic tube. Light light fixture may be hung
to supply its wires only in cases where these wires are made for
these goals. In all cases, the wires in the ground contact times in
holder and a connecting block on the ceiling should not be mechanical
loads. In operation now have ammunition for light bulbs as
with current-carrying helical barrel, and the isolated. For electrical
only the leading liner must be attached to the neutral wire, the central
spring contact holder - to the phase conductors. Cartridges with isolated
sleeve in this regard are safer because they vvertyvaemoy cap lamp
will be energized only after it is sunk into the insulating
housing the cartridge. In an open powerline wires fastened directly
on the surface of walls, ceilings, a balcony, the same attacks on insulators in metal,
plastic tubes, in boxes in electrical baseboards, etc.
Open wiring is on the surface of concrete, brick
plaster or wooden walls, in particular, wallpapered, perform
flat wire marks APPV, PPV, ASDP, secure wires or light
unarmoured cable. To do this drill on the markup or punched in
network holes 10 mm in diameter, in which cement in parentheses. Brackets can
and fixed with dowels. The distance between the points of attachment wires
along its axis must not be greater than 400 mm, with mounting nails - 250-300
mm. At the intersections of the wires under the bracket holes are drilled at a distance
50 mm from the center of the intersection. Junction boxes are mounted on a wooden
Based on a fireproof plastic dowels, screws or glue.
Allowed option without mounting box, which in this case will be held
wires. Wire, cut a small drift under the relevant sections
lines before installing straighten, holding them 2-3 times through a cloth, sandwiched
in the palm of your hand. Then the piece of wire on the preliminary layout fixed
on a concrete or brick wall at the base vmazannymi metal staples,
to bend, they squeeze the wire. Under the wire brackets protect bed
adhesive tape. On a wooden base with a diameter wires are attached with nails
1, 5-1, 75 mm long and 20-25 mm from the cap of 3 mm. Nails are hammered first
approximately 3 / 4 lengths, and then using the mandrel until it touches the jumper cap
wire. For convenience, the mandrel is made hole under the nail head. In place
crossing the wires on one podmatyvayutsya 1-2 layers of insulation
Tape the area 25-30 mm long. The wires at the intersection of the pipes
introduced into the insulating tube and a cut in utaplivayut wall grooves.
Insulation tubes are placed on wires and in places they pass through walls.
Bends in the wiring base separating the wires cut
70-80 mm in length. It is convenient to do it with scissors, pliers or side
knife. The ends of the wires, introduced into the junction boxes or in boxes of installation
devices that bite with a margin of 65-75 mm, which will provide an opportunity
re-connect wires and convenient replacement of sockets, switches. In the box
wires are introduced so that the cut in their base area of ​​the separation
did not come out of the box. Stranded wires are connected to the boxes, the bare ends
lived isolated tape which is wound in several layers of
overlap without gaps to ensure a reliable electrical insulation and protection
conductor wire from oxidation. Insulated wires are placed in boxes
so that they do not touch each other. Wires in
input in a box fastened to the wall at a distance of 50 mm from the box. Box
lid. In an open wiring switches and sockets protected
execution is set on the wall, attached to wooden or plastic
Escutcheon diameter of 8-10 mm larger than the device installed on it.
Technology wiring with safety wires and cables is almost
no different from laying flat wire conductors. The only difference
in the ways of attaching conductors. Light unarmoured cable with
two wires attached to the base metal staples with one foot
or brackets with clamps, and two or three of the twin cable - brackets
with two legs. On the basis of concrete or brick brackets are fixed
screws, screw-in anchors or spacer in metal spiral
vmazannye into the ground. In a tree holding brackets with screws. Distance
between the points of attachment not exceeding 500 mm in the field changes direction
cable bend radius to be at least 10 diameters. The first bracket
It is a 10-15mm from the beginning of the bend. Cables pass through the wooden
Wall run to the segments of metal pipes, fire-resistant walls -
in plastic tubes or sleeves. Connect the cable to the junction
plastic boxes, which are fixed on the basis of screws. Cable,
injected into the body of the lamp or socket, in addition to fixed
distance of 50-100 mm from the input. Wiring and mount protected by wire
identical layout and fixing of the cable line. Wiring under the plaster,
performed by the wet method, lay the wires APPV, APV, APPVS, APN.
According to the preliminary layout of wiring harvest nests under the junction
Boxes, boxes, outlets and switches, punch-through holes in the
walls. Cement in a box in their pockets so that they protrude from the wall
on the thickness of the plaster of the future. The wires are cut the right length with a margin
100-120 mm on each side for connections and fixed on the surface
Wall alabaster small portions of the solution. To these alabaster
islets were not above the layer of plaster the future, they should be after one
Two minutes after installation, before they harden completely cut off. After
secure boxes and wires, the introduction ends of the wires in boxes with a plastic
these endpoints insulation tubes can be attached to the wall layers
plaster. Connections and junctions of wires in boxes, installation switches
and rosettes made after the painting or papering the walls of their wallpaper. During the repair
or upgrading under a layer of drywall to punch her in the groove
wires across the highway is not required, and it is impossible. Sheetrock is usually
attached to the wall on the rails, and between the wall and plaster is a void.
In this case, to proceed with the wires on the right track is enough to break
in the plaster a few holes with a diameter of 30-40 mm through which consistently
push hard punches, with which you can then drag the wire
across the highway. At crossing points through the rail in the plaster will have to punch
short groove, ending with through holes. All holes and
grooves are sealed alabaster solution. In order not to spoil the wallpaper, their
need to place the holes and grooves cut and bend, and after
of glue back.

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